How to enter the router and configure the connection

We change operator or contract for the first time a fixed Internet connection and they install a router (or we install ourselves, which is what is in fashion) and that is where our concern ends, browsing has been said. But the truth is that we should not forget that this device with lights that we plant is the door that connects us with the outside and also vice versa. So it is very important to know how to enter the router and configure the connection .

Signing in can be easy, but making your connection gain in security and quality is a task that involves several steps. To help you with this task, next we will tell you step by step from how to access the configuration of your router to establishing filters so that no one can connect or find the best channel to improve the speed of your WiFi.

How to enter the router configuration:

First of all, access the router settings. The most convenient thing is to use a computer connected to the WiFi network of the same router and type the following address in any browser: Those numbers represent the gateway to the administrator panel of the router of most operators, except in the case of Movistar, which access is via the web .

At this point we will have to enter the username and password , which in most cases is “admin” in both cases, and that is the first weak point of any router. Maintaining the default configuration opens the door for anyone who manages to connect to our WiFi network to enter the configuration of the router.

How to configure the connection

Once we have accessed the router configuration panel we will see many menus and options that we can change, but do not venture to change data, since you could be offline, although luckily all of them have a reset button that pressing it for several seconds restores the configuration initial . Next we will see how to configure the connection, improving its security and performance.

Change the router access password

For our guide we are going to use a Comtrend router, model AR-5387, although the configuration of the routers supplied by the operators is very similar, so the menus may change somewhat but they will be very similar. In our case, in order to change the access data to the router we have to go to Management -> Access Control , where just by entering the default access data we can establish a new password.

Rename the network

Once we have already made sure that anyone who connects to our WiFi cannot alter the configuration of our router, it becomes more difficult for them to connect to it. The first measure, to avoid knowing which company belongs to the router (which can provide facilities) is to change the name of the network. To do this we go to Wireless -> Basic and in the SSID section we change the name of the network to whatever we want.

Another more drastic option but that can also be very effective is to directly hide the network, leave it activated but that is not visible to any device . For this we will only have to click on the Hide Point Access option in the same previous window. In this way, whoever wants to connect to our WiFi will have to previously know the name of the network.

Device MAC Filtering

Another security measure you can take to protect unwanted people from connecting to your WiFi network is to establish MAC filtering. That word is nothing more than the WiFi license plate of any device, and with that number you can make that only certain devices can connect or the opposite, that a specific device cannot connect .

The possibility of making lists of allowed or not allowed MACs is in Wireless -> MAC Filter , where you have to select Allow if you want to make a list of allowed MACs (it would not allow you to connect to any other device) or Disallow if you want to restrict access to certain concrete devices.

Find the perfect channel for our WiFi network

And now that we have secured our network, there are many who complain that its WiFi does not offer all the speed that was expected. One of the many reasons that may be behind low performance is the saturation of channels that can occur in our environment. To avoid this problem, the easiest thing is to look at the channels most used by other WiFi networks within our reach to use the freest channel.

The easiest way to check channel saturation is through an app, such as WiFi Analyzer for Android. In the case of iOS there is no app that allows analyzing the channels, although we can also do this check from a Windows PC .

Once the least saturated channel is located, telling our router to use it is very simple. We just have to go to Wireless -> Advanced and in the Channel option choose the desired one.

Change the WiFi network password

The next measure, or the only one that many would take, to secure our router is to change the default password. This option will be found in Wireless -> Security . In the Network Authentication option we can select the type of security that we want to use. This point is not necessary to change if we already have the WPA-PSK option selected, if not the safest option is this.

At this point, we have to use logic. If we change the default password to improve the security of our WiFi we will have to use a new robust password, avoiding simple passwords or those that use birthdays or the like. The best option will be to make a combination of number and letters (upper and lower case) that is difficult to guess.


How change the WhatsApp Status into Offline Using Different WhatsApp Tricks?

Surely you are already part of the billion registered users on WhatsApp, and like everyone, on some occasion, you have had certain doubts about this application, and it is most normal since with the passage of time, WhatsApp is being updated and each time acquiring new functions and tools.

Would you like to always appear offline on WhatsApp? Many of us, on some occasion, have thought about the idea of ​​appearing on-line on WhatsApp, for whatever reason, how to be disconnected on WhatsApp? How to avoid appearing online on WhatsApp? And above all , how to appear offline on WhatsApp without blocking and without uninstalling the application? Of course, the idea is not to run out of the application, much less have to block contacts, the objective is to be there but without being seen, and to be able to carry out all the actions of a user online, but being disconnected for others.

How to appear offline on WhatsApp while connected?

If you use Android, iPhone, if you connect from WiFi or use Data, there are 3 easy ways to see yourself offline.

  1. Setting up privacy

The first and easiest option is the one that WhatsApp gives us, within its settings we can put our last private connection time, and nobody can know when it was that we last connected, for this go to> Settings> Account > Privacy> Last hour. Time> No one

The downside of this method is that WhatsApp seems to be very fair, and if you decide not to show the last time you connected, you will not see the other person’s connection either.

  1. Using the WhatsApp Widget

If you want to read your messages without opening the application, you can install the WhatsApp Widget on the desktop of your cell phone, so you can check your latest messages, however, you will not be able to reply.

If you do not want to use the Widget, remember that in the upper notification bar, WhatsApp always shows the latest chats, this would also be an easy option to view your messages without connecting.

  1. Deactivating your Internet connection

The only way not to appear connected, not to show the message “Online” is deactivating your internet connection.

If you do this, you can enter WhatsApp, read all the chats and nobody will notice, to make sure this works well, put your phone in airplane mode.

The disadvantage of this method is that new messages will not reach you either.

How to appear offline on WhatsApp web?

Appearing offline on WhatsApp web is very easy, and it is done following the same procedures as on mobile:

  • Open WhatsApp from your pc, scanning the code with the camera of your cell phone
  • Enter the settings
  • Click on> privacy> account> last connection time> No one
Application to not appear online on WhatsApp

There have already been several tricks to appear offline on WhatsApp, however, the official page of this social network, ensures that it is impossible to disable “Online” when we connect on WhatsApp, there is no way to do it, this feature is general for everyone users and no one can intervene.

However, there are some apk to try to appear offline on WhatsApp, which could help us in our goals.

Private Reading Application for WhatsApp

This app, you can find it in the Play Store, it allows you to read your messages privately, not appear online and also disable the reading confirmation.

In the details of this application, they tell us that it only applies to recent messages and not to old ones, so we can assume that it simulates being the notifier of the top bar of our phones, but even so, it is a very good contribution, that it certainly saves us a lot of time.

How to appear offline on WhatsApp for a person?

You can not, so far WhatsApp is very generic regarding its privacy settings to show the connection.

As we explained before, you can prevent them from seeing when you last connected, but this option applies to all your contacts, there is no specific configuration for one or more friends.

WhatsApp, like other social networks, uses a setting called “duplex” to notify a person when their contact is writing a message …

However, the doubts are many, many times we wait too long to receive such a short message, and you ask us: Has it taken so long to write two words? Or is WhatsApp deceiving us when it shows us “Writing”?

What happens when we see writing on WhatsApp?

The newspaper El Confidencial, with the intervention of Celeste Campo, a telematic engineer from the Carlos III University of Madrid, and Francisco Serradilla, professor of the Master’s Degree in Mobile Application Development at the Polytechnic University of Madrid , released a lot of relevant information about this aspect, and in summary, we tell you below.

  • Messages on WhatsApp are not sent directly to the recipient’s mobile, they first pass through the company’s servers, and until the moment it reaches the recipient, “Writing” will appear.
  • While the message is on the server, on the recipient’s cell phone, “Writing” will continue to appear
  • It is not known how long, the message is on the WhatsApp server
  • WhatsApp, check if the other person really keeps typing to show you “Typing”, it happens that a normal person does not always write, every 3 or 4 seconds, he stops to think and continues typing, that is why we also see the message of “Online”, which refers to those few seconds where the sender stops typing.
How to know if someone is writing on WhatsApp?

As we explained previously, there is no way to see exactly whether or not a person is typing, however, whenever they are pressing the keys, WhatsApp will interpret it as the typing action, and that is what it will show you.


What does an artist need to be an artist? Explain in detail

An artist is a person who exercises the arts and produces artistic works. The definition of the term, therefore, will be associated with what is understood by art.

From the Latin ars, art consists of the expression of sensations, emotions and ideas through plastic, linguistic or sound resources. The concept allows us to encompass the creations that human beings make to express their sensitive vision of the real or imaginary world.

The notion of art has changed throughout history and, with it, the meaning of an artist. The prehistoric men who painted the Altamira caves, for example, are considered artists today. Medieval artisans, Renaissance engravers, and Greek architects are also artists, as are today’s painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, and cartoonists.

Among the many types of artists that exist, we should highlight poets, novelists, playwrights, painters, sculptors, musicians, singers …

The list of classes of artists that exist is vast, and the list of characters that due to their qualities in any of those arts have managed to become true milestones in world history is also very extensive. Among the most significant would be the following:

Leonardo da Vinci. His versatility and high quality in each and every one of the types of art he practiced were two of the main hallmarks of the one who became a key figure of the Renaissance. His most significant works include paintings such as “La Gioconda” or “The Last Supper”, without forgetting the drawing of “The Vitruvian Man”.

Miguel Angel. Within the field of painting, architecture and sculpture it was where this artist especially stood out, who has become one of the most important figures of all time. It was in the Renaissance that this personage who has bequeathed us works such as the “Sistine Chapel”, St. Peter’s Basilica or the “David” was present.

Diego Velázquez, Cervantes, Picasso, Mozart or Beethoven are other artists who have become indisputable figures who have gone down in history for their talent, their qualities, and their works, which come to reflect that they were true geniuses of painting, literature or music.

It is possible to distinguish between fine arts and other minor artistic manifestations. In this sense, the definition of artist will also come into play. A person who is dedicated to drawing comics or comics can be considered an artist by some, while others will not include it in the category.

There are also different qualities in artistic works. Painting is generally part of art. But not all people who paint pictures receive the nickname of the artist. In some cases, even, a subject can define himself as an artist despite not receiving such social recognition.

It should be noted that art is associated with human practices for having an aesthetic or symbolic intention. Some zoos or trainers have had animals like dolphins or monkeys paint pictures, although hardly anyone can consider them as artists.

What does an artist need to be an artist?

Being a visual artist in most countries is difficult, personally I have often asked myself: Why did I choose this path? if in my country it is almost impossible to live from art and it is even frowned upon that a woman decides to dedicate herself to this, in more practical terms, dedicating herself to art is seen as a complete “professional failure” compared to other professions, that is, nobody would ever doubt from someone who wants to dedicate themselves to medicine or the administration of a company, but when mentioning that you are dedicated to art they even suggest that this is just a hobby that they hope will soon go out of style for you and you dedicate yourself to a true profession.

So if it is almost impossible to live from art, why want to dedicate yourself to that?

The artist finds in art a way of living, I am not talking about subsisting, but of using art as its engine. An artist not only likes art, but always has the need to express himself through it, it is more than just putting a few brushstrokes, it is leaving in each work a part of himself. We summarize then that for the artist, art is one of his greatest reasons for living.

Now, it is important to mention that in this journey some basic qualities are necessary in addition to passion and love of art, qualities that will help us to go from simple draftsmen to artists. For example:

1) Talent – This is essential, that is, it is not something that can be negotiated with, if it is not there is nothing that can be done because it comes from the factory; it is carried in the veins, it is a birthmark. Now, yes it is, it can always be developed and taken to better levels. In children, if artistic practices are encouraged from an early age, they can show whether they have skills or not.

2) Technique – Without technique, talent is conditioned. It is always transcendental to know about painters, art history, techniques, in short, there are so many concepts that can help us refine.

Every day something new is learned, without a doubt in the life of other artists there is where to take lessons for those who we are undertaking, the one who thinks he knows everything does not fit or by force in the art world, because it is a world of incessant change.

An artist with a well-developed technique has in his hands a great capacity for expression, I am of the opinion that an artist should move freely between various techniques, without fear. An artist must know how to paint everything.

3) Sensitivity – Today it is difficult to find an artist with a good technique, but it is even more difficult to find an artist endowed with sensitivity, someone who not only moves through an “artistic current”, but is capable of feeling color and shape in a different way, something beyond being part of the “artistic movement of the moment” does not give it.

One of the biggest challenges for an artist is to get colors, shapes, spaces, etc. they combine with each other and speak to others with their own language embedded in their work.

In art words are superfluous because he is able to speak without words when seen he is capable of transmitting emotions, that is why sensitivity is something necessary, of course, sensitization is something that can develop over the years, looking, of course he is not reading, as I said before: the abundance of words is not relevant to art.

4) Vocation – As I already mentioned, becoming an artist will not be an easy thing, liking and knowing about art is not enough to be an artist.

Now, as we already mentioned that living from art is almost impossible, the remuneration is not enough, that is, the vocation should not be confused with the illusion of becoming a well-paid art professional.

Repeat it daily: “Living from art is not the same as living for art”

Vocation reminds you on a daily basis that art is carried in the soul, rather than in your pocket, although the path is very difficult sooner or later the true vocation emerges.

5) Discipline – In my opinion, it is just as valuable and necessary as the others, but it is one of the most satisfying, throughout my short career as an emerging artist I have seen parades of great talents with perfect techniques, some others full of Impressive sensitivity but both are no more than just that, good cartoonists.

But I have also seen simple talents, with current technique, become the most assiduous artists due to the discipline with which they carried out their works daily.

Discipline is what helps you by whispering in your ear, you are doing well, but you can go better, or you are better, but you can give more, in a few words discipline will never tell you: “Genius, you have nothing else to learn!”
These are the qualities that in my opinion are precise in all artists. I don’t doubt that they will find more or that others will work for others, but in my own experience, this is the marked path, this is what an artist needs to be an Artist.


Some thoughts on the concept of Stimulus check

Reflection is made on the concept of stimulus check in operant conditioning theory, and especially on the concept of the discriminative stimulus. For this, the logical and definitional problems that the use of the concept of stimulus in general and that of discriminative stimulus in particular have. Various experiments by the author are reviewed to show the inability of the concept of discriminative stimulus to account for a series of data that show the logical and empirical insufficiencies of the concept.

Some thoughts on the concept of stimulus check in operant conditioning theory and in particular on the concept of a discriminative stimulus are presented. The paper presents the logical and definitional problems regarding the use of the concept of stimulus in general and of a discriminative stimulus in particular. Several experiments conducted by the author are presented to exemplify the logical and empirical inadequacies of the concept of discriminative stimulus to account for a series of data.

With the permission of the publisher of this volume, I am going to allow myself to point out some conceptual problems of the use that is given to the concept of discriminative stimulus and its technological-operational derivative, that of stimulus check. This last concept supposes the restricted “irradiation” of the functions of the discriminative stimulus to dimensionally adjacent or similar stimuli (stimulus generalization). The logical problems presented by these concepts are not unique to them, but are shared by the set of categories of operant conditioning theory.

To a large extent, although not exclusively, these problems stem from the operationalist logic of the theory, as I have previously examined (Ribes, 2003, 2004). In any case, To carry out this conceptual examination, I am going to base myself on two types of criteria, by the very nature of the analysis. The first has to do with the definitional logic of the concepts used and their appropriate use.

The second has to do with empirical observations extracted, most of them, from experiments carried out in my laboratory in which, when some of the experimental conditions regularly used to study stimulus check are varied, the antecedent stimuli do not show the expected functional properties. by operant conditioning theory. Some conceptual and empirical problems Skinner (1938) distinguished between two functions of the stimuli that precede the conditional-response: the evocative function, assigned to conditional stimuli (CD) in respondent-type conditioning, and the discriminative function, characteristic of discriminative and delta stimuli in the operant conditioning.

Conditional stimuli are usually defined based on their duration and overlap with respect to the unconditional stimulus, and their function is identified in relation to a component or fraction of the unconditional response. Conditional stimuli were described as signal stimuli by Pavlov (1927) or as preparatory stimuli by Skinner himself. Instead, discriminative (and delta) stimuli are regularly defined as stimuli in the presence of which a response produces the delivery of reinforcement and in the absence of which the response is not effective.

Discriminative stimuli occur during more or less extensive periods, delimited by the occurrence of a reinforcer under a certain program, or by the course of a period in which one or more reinforcers can occur, although the period ends without terminal responses are followed by the reinforcer, as is often the case in multiple independent programs and concurrent programs (Ferster & Skinner, 1957). In this case, Skinner stated that discriminative stimuli select effective responses to produce the occurrence of reinforcement.

Discriminative stimuli occur during more or less extensive periods, delimited by the occurrence of a reinforcer under a certain program, or by the course of a period in which one or more reinforcers can occur, although the period ends without terminal responses are followed by the reinforcer, as is often the case in multiple independent programs and concurrent programs (Ferster & Skinner, 1957). In this case, Skinner stated that discriminative stimuli select effective responses to produce the occurrence of reinforcement.

Discriminative stimuli occur during more or less extensive periods, delimited by the occurrence of a reinforcer under a certain program, or by the course of a period in which one or more reinforcers can occur, although the period ends without terminal responses are followed by the reinforcer, as is often the case in multiple independent programs and concurrent programs (Ferster & Skinner, 1957). In this case, Skinner stated that discriminative stimuli select effective responses to produce the occurrence of reinforcement. although the period ends without the terminal responses being followed by the reinforcer, as usually happens in multiple independent programs and in concurrent programs (Ferster & Skinner, 1957).

In this case, Skinner stated that discriminative stimuli select effective responses to produce the occurrence of reinforcement. although the period ends without the terminal responses being followed by the reinforcer, as usually happens in multiple independent programs and in concurrent programs (Ferster & Skinner, 1957). In this case, Skinner stated that discriminative stimuli select effective responses to produce the occurrence of reinforcement.

It is obvious that this distinction places in stimulation-correlated stimuli in no man’s land superimposed on the occurrence of “unconditional” or “spontaneous” responses not induced by the enhancer or required to produce the enhancer, or when it comes from stimuli incidental to an explicit operant contingency (Brown & Jenkins, 1968; Morse & Skinner, 1955), responses initially considered as a “second” and “third form of superstition”.

In operant conditioning, two fundamental criteria are used to identify stimulus check (Rilling, 1977): one, is the difference in the frequency of occurrence of the response in the presence or absence of: a) a stimulus correlated with reinforcement, b ) a stimulus not correlated with reinforcement or, c) a stimulus correlated with non-reinforcement; Another criterion has to do with the development of typical patterns of repeated responses under certain reinforcement programs, patterns related to the ratio, interval and pause programs.


“why should i hire you” Most attractive question to hire you within extensive experience

The best way to answer such a question is with a strong argument. Before going to a job interview where you may have to answer this question,  prepare your speech well . These are the three points on which you can base the suitability of your application and correctly answer the dreaded question: Why should i hire you?

When experience backs you up

It seems that with a long history behind you, you have everything done. But in an interview you do not want to determine only if you can hold the position, but if you are the person who best performs it among all the candidates. To build your speech it is necessary that you research the company well, and  that you find what may be most attractive to you to hire you within that extensive experience.

Highlight it above the rest as something significant in your professional career, and note that you felt comfortable during that period of time. The enthusiasm and motivation with which you talk about certain topics transmits confidence and trust . It is disconcerting to select someone who is not connected to the position, despite being able to carry out the tasks involved.

Highlight training

In a resume it is not usually relevant to extend too much about how you have acquired the knowledge you have. However, in an interview, an anecdote can be told about the formative stage in which certain learning stands out. Again, what it is about is to differentiate yourself and the anecdote is ideal for this purpose since it usually connects better with your interlocutors. Of course, it must be of interest.

This does not mean that the rest of the profile is ignored. You have to make everything shine that makes you score points, but adding that touch of testimony makes the interview stop being a cold and impersonal communication and will stimulate empathy towards your profile.

Put the emphasis on skills and competencies

When your experience is scarce and your training is not too bright, you have another trick: talking about your skills and competences. Find what defines you as a hard-working person. The perseverance, the will, the ability to learn quickly or to adapt to new situations, work well as a team, know your responsibilities, follow up and fulfill assignments, serve the public well … There are many professional qualities that can be highlighted.

Two conditions are necessary to know where you should recreate yourself: that you really possess the skill or competence that you are going to talk about and that is relevant to the position. With the conviction to carry out the duties done, you can transmit confidence in your words and get to attract the recruiters’ attention.

By way of conclusion, remember that the fundamental thing is to find the point that makes you different to hire yourself and, from there, guide your speech to reinforce this position. The feeling that you know how to answer about the suitability of your profile will be evident in the interview.

To start, think about it: it doesn’t make sense! “Tell me why I have to hire you”, let’s see:

  1. In absolute terms, there is no human way that you can know the answer to that question. To start you would have to interview the other candidates since it is a comparative question: “why do I have to hire you and not the other candidates?” Well, let me meet you, I interview you, and I tell you why. As simple as that.
  2. It is your job. It is he who has to know why he is going to hire one ahead of another. Little more to say here.
  3. Has he told you what profile of competence he is looking for exactly and what socio-cultural-corporate variables are going to influence the decision so that you can give a well-based answer and not one at random? Well, no. What you have seen in the offer is only a small percentage of everything he has to take into account to make the decision. And this brings me back to the previous point, so it’s basically asking you to be a fortune teller. Well, I should have put it in the offer requirements …

But the reality is that in the beautiful profession of finding the perfect professional for a company, there is everything -as in the vineyard of the Lord-, and there are certain questions that you will continue to encounter and that you will have to know how to answer.

Personally, I do not think that the way to get to know the candidate better and to be able to make the most real assessment of his abilities, attitudes and potential is to continue asking those questions – of which, let’s be frank, we all get the prepared and lacking answer. of freshness, sincerity or really valuable information-, but it is, because the old habits cost God and help change them, and although the companies are all innovative, the reality is that they cling to traditions and “as has always been done” beyond what is still useful or continues to make sense.

When I am asked this question again someday, I tell you what I would like to answer:

“That is a good question. The decision you have to make is important and I don’t know if I can give you the answer you want. Beyond the requirements of the position, I do not know inside the company, the management style or the needs of the company considering the market situation, nor do I know the other candidates to be able to compare. There’s only one thing I know well: myself, and I’m sure I could excel at doing this job. I have the knowledge and experience to face the position with confidence and the desire to overcome the challenges that will undoubtedly arise. And above all, I am passionate about this market and I am determined to do my best work ”

The reality is that there is no perfect or correct answer. The decision will be made taking into account a series of variables and requirements that you cannot know in any way, it will not be made based on one (or two) responses. In fact, I wish it were so, because then it would be as easy as a mathematical equation or a “test-type” test that we liked so much in the race (versus those of “open questions”, which for those of us who have studied law and are easy feat… they were a piece of the challenge).

But always remember:

No one will pay you for having a degree, but for what you are capable of doing or what you can get others to do

So, almost better than worrying about having the correct answer, my recommendations are:

  • Previously worry about having applied to a position that really appeals to you, in which you have a lot to contribute and that fits with your values ​​and your way of being. At this point in the film this might sound obvious but unfortunately, there are still many people who keep giving everything (CV-wise) and then comes crying and gnashing of teeth …
  • Unwrap yourself in the interview as naturally as possible. If you have to say “I don’t know the answer to that question,” say it. I assure you that no matter how desperate you are, it will be of little use to you to pretend your personality and give answers “from others” to hire you.
  • With that said, never go with one hand in front and one behind. Think in advance of the tranquility of your home what you want to convey, make sure you know how to tell your story and above all: prepare concrete examples of what you have achieved in your previous work
  • This is not the time to be shy or modest. If you don’t tell them why they’re interested in hiring you, don’t expect them to be fortune tellers or mind readers. Put it on capon: say exactly what you are good at and give examples of it, always give examples.
  • And finally, if I could only give you the recommendation to face the interview, it would be that beyond having the correct answer, what will give you the competitive advantage will be your ATTITUDE. No coach I know will give more importance to your title, a year or so of experience, a certificate more or less than the desire, enthusiasm and willingness to improve and give the best of yourself. None, I assure you!

Etiquettes which helps to make a good impression on a meal in the restaurant.

Table manners play an important role in giving us an idea of ​​people’s education and making a good impression on a meal. Having good table manners is a guarantee for success, both in our personal relationships and in business.

Regardless of whether the meal is with our boss, a colleague or a client, our manners can give you an idea of ​​our level of education and in some cases, our professional capacity to undertake appointments of this type. Someone who does not know how to move freely at the table does not offer a good image and may be a symptom of a lack of experience in this type of business meal.

The napkin and its usefulness as a symbol

Food, according to the most traditional canons, must begin when the host begins to unfold his napkin , place it on his lap and start eating. This is the starting point of any meal. We must do the same and place the unfolded napkin on our lap . If the napkin is very large we can place it folded in half.

The napkin should remain in this position throughout the meal, and should only be removed from the lap to clean our lips when necessary (always before and after drinking).

In certain places, as in the case of many American countries, they usually leave the napkin, when they have to be away for a moment, on the chair , to indicate that they will return in a few moments. Nor is it a generalized custom throughout America, but in some countries and regions.

In Europe it is left slightly wrinkled on the table, on the left side ; if we pause it by leaving the crumpled napkin on the right side it could be interpreted as the end of the meal, and not as a pause.

The end of the meal is usually marked by the host, leaving his napkin slightly “wrinkled” on the table. Once the meal is over the rest of the diners should do the same with their napkin. It is not correct to leave the napkin on the plate or fold it again as if it had never been used .

The choice of the menu

If after reviewing the menu there are doubts about any of the dishes on the menu, do not hesitate to ask the waiter about their composition and any other information that we consider of interest before venturing to order something that we do not like. It is part of the job of the waiter, who is not only in the room to take note. This is convenient to ask if the dish brings any ingredient that we do not like, to which we are allergic or for any other reason. It is much better to ask than to leave the plate untested later.

If we are accompanied with other people, the host will be the one who can make a suggestion, as well as instruct the waiter to take note first of his table companions and lastly to him. On certain occasions, the host will make the request, since the rest of the diners will have chosen to be “carried away” by the host’s suggestions.

In the event that there are women at the table, these will be the ones that order first.

Expensive dishes should not be ordered as a guest , unless directed or recommended by our host.

Nor should more than two dishes be ordered in a meal. If the host is inclined to order a certain dish and makes the comment about the suitability of us ordering the same, we can order that same dish regardless of what it is worth. The same occurs at the time of desserts. At this time of the dessert we should not ask for any type of expensive liquor or imported drink unless the host invites us to do so. We can also let the waiter advise us on the specialties of the house.

Interpreting the table
If we attend a formal dinner or formal banquet, it is possible to be able to “guess” to a certain extent the dishes that will be served to us by the cutlery and plates that are on the table. The same goes for the cups and drinks that will be served. It is usual, for banquets of this type, that there are some printed cards with the menu -minutes-, but if there are not, it is when we can read between the lines “the table” by the cutlery that is placed for each diner.

To give us an idea and starting from the plate as the center, on the right are placed the knives , spoons and any other type of special cutlery (a clamp for seafood, a hook for snails, etc.). In the upper part of the plate and slightly to the right the glassware is placed : a glass of water, a glass of red wine and a glass of white wine. If there is champagne, this glass will be placed last on the right (and in some places it will be placed first on the left).

On the left side are placed all the forks and support utensils (to prick or hold), and on the upper left side the bread and butter dish. Generally, the napkin is also placed, but we have left it up to everyone’s choice because placing it on either side of the plate is totally correct.

There are authors who give a certain general rule to recognize the cutlery (apart from the best-known rule of using them from the outside in). It is to remember that the utensils for taking liquid or pasty foods – creams, purees, etc. – have their cutlery on the right side, and solid foods usually have their cutlery on the left side.

End of the meal. Table time

We should never move the plate away from the table to indicate that it is finished eating. It is an incorrect and improper action on the behavior of a well-educated diner.

The plate always remains in the same position throughout the meal. The way to indicate to the waiter that you have finished eating is to leave the cutlery in parallel on the plate. Mangoes are not left very protruding from the plate because it can lead to involuntary stumbling over them, either when the waiter removes the plate or by ourselves with our own arms. They should be well tucked towards the center of the plate.

The cutlery that we have not used does not need to be put on the plate , we can leave it on the table, and they will be removed when appropriate. In the case of spoons and cups or other bowls, they are never left inside the container but are left on the base plate that accompanies this container. A clear example, the coffee spoon.